Artificial intelligence is a recurring theme in recent remarks by top executives at Alphabet. The company’s latest Founders’ Letter, penned by Sergey Brin, is no exception—but he also finds time to namecheck possible downsides around safety, jobs, and fairness.

The company has issued a Founders’ Letter—usually penned by Brin, cofounder Larry Page or both—every year, beginning with the letter that accompanied Google’s 2004 IPO. Machine learning and artificial intelligence have been mentioned before.

But this year Brin expounds at length on a recent boom in development in AI that he describes as a “renaissance.” “The new spring in artificial intelligence is the most significant development in computing in my lifetime,” Brin writes—no small statement from a man whose company has already wrought great changes in how people and businesses use computers. When Google was founded in 1998, Brin writes, the machine learning technique known as artificial neural networks, invented in the 1940s and loosely inspired by studies of the brain, was “a forgotten footnote in computer science.” Today the method is the engine of the recent surge in excitement and investment around artificial intelligence.

The letter unspools a partial list of where Alphabet uses neural networks, for tasks such as enabling self-driving cars to recognize objects, translating languages, adding captions to YouTube videos, diagnosing eye disease, and even creating better neural networks. Brin nods to the gains in computing power that have made this possible.

He says the custom AI chip running inside some Google servers is more than a million times more powerful than the Pentium II chips in Google’s first servers. In a flash of math humor, he says that Google’s quantum computing chips might one day offer jumps in speed over existing computers that can be only be described with the number that gave Google its name, a googol, or a 1 followed by 100 zeroes. Read more from wired.com…

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