PARIS — When President Emmanuel Macron took office, he took pains to include two iPhones in his official portrait, a symbol of his penchant for technology. Millennials throng as he buzzes from one French start-up event to the next.

He has wined and dined the chief executives of the world’s largest tech companies, who in turn have vowed to invest billions here. Yet a year after Mr. Macron unveiled an aggressive agenda to turn France into “a start-up nation,” it is unclear if reality has kept pace with his rhetoric.

While the country has quickly become one of the most talked-about destinations in Europe for tech companies and start-ups, France still faces an uphill path in its bid to usurp London as the region’s technology leader. 50% off + Cooking and Crossword for one year.

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