Here’s a list — building on and including Chris’ last roundup — of crypto readings and resources. It’s organized from building blocks and basics; foundations (& history); and key concepts and beginners’ guides — followed by specific topics such as governance; development, privacy, and security; scaling; consensus; cryptoeconomics and investing; fundraising and token distribution; decentralized exchanges; stablecoins; and cryptoeconomic primitives (crytocollectibles, curation markets, games & culture).

We also included a section with other resources, such as newsletters and courses, at the end. We’ll soon be updating this regularly at crypto.a16z.com, for now we’ll keep it updated here.

You can also find most of a16z’s writings, posts, and videos on the topic at a16z.com/crypto. How the bitcoin protocol actually worksby Michael Nielsenhttp://www.michaelnielsen.org/ddi/how-the-bitcoin-protocol-actually-works/ Ethereum in 25 minutesby Vitalik Buterinhttps://youtu.be/66SaEDzlmP4 Decrypting crypto, from bitcoin and blockchain to ICOsby Alex Rampellhttps://a16z.com/2017/12/08/summit-crypto-alex-rampell/ Cryptographic hash function — what they are, properties of, etc.by Khan Academyhttps://youtu.be/0WiTaBI82Mc a basic primer on blockchain — ledger basics, why it matters
Chris Berg, Sinclair Davidson, and Jason Pottshttps://medium.com/@cryptoeconomics/the-blockchain-economy-a-beginners-guide-to-institutional-cryptoeconomics-64bf2f2beec4 a basic glossary of terms — a few short and simple definitionshttps://tangelo.co/insights/blog/techs-must-have-reference-guide-to-blockchain-and-cryptocurrency Bitcoin whitepaper (2009): A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash Systemby Satoshi Nakamotohttps://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf Ethereum whitepaper (2013+): A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platformby Vitalik Buterin et alhttps://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper The idea of smart contracts (1997)by Nick Szabohttp://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/rob/Courses/InformationInSpeech/CDROM/Literature/LOTwinterschool2006/szabo.best.vwh.net/idea.html Why bitcoin matters (2014)by Marc Andreessenhttps://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/why-bitcoin-matters/ Beyond the bitcoin bubbleby Steven Johnsonhttps://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/16/magazine/beyond-the-bitcoin-bubble.html Crypto tokens: A breakthrough in open network designby Chris Dixonhttps://medium.com/@cdixon/crypto-tokens-a-breakthrough-in-open-network-design-e600975be2ef  Crypto tokens and the coming age of protocol innovationby Albert Wengerhttp://continuations.com/post/148098927445/crypto-tokens-and-the-coming-age-of-protocol  Fat protocolsby Joel Monegrohttps://www.usv.com/blog/fat-protocols  Cryptocurrencies, app coins, and investing in protocolsOlaf Carson-Wee, Chris Dixon, and Sonal Chokshihttps://a16z.com/2017/04/03/cryptocurrencies-protocols-appcoins/ Getting applications into people’s handsJuan Benet and Chris Dixonhttps://a16z.com/2017/09/14/networks-protocols-labs-tokens/ How the U.S. government used blockchain to fight fraudby Kathryn Haunhttps://youtu.be/507wn9VcSAE  Bitcoin network effectsby Elad Gilhttp://blog.eladgil.com/2017/12/bitcoin-network-effects_11.html The quiet master of cryptocurrency — Nick Szabo in conversation with Naval Ravikant
by Tim Ferrishttps://tim.blog/2017/06/04/nick-szabo/ Beginner’s guide series on cryptoassets (series) — from ethereum to litecoin
by Linda Xiehttps://medium.com/@linda.xie/beginners-guide-series-on-cryptoassets-d897535d887  Why crypto tokens matterFred Ehrsam and Chris Dixonhttps://a16z.com/2017/09/28/cryptocurrencies-networks-tokens/ Why it’s hard to “get” bitcoin: the blockchain spectrumby Dhruv Bansalhttps://blog.unchained-capital.com/blockchain-spectrum-806847e1c575 The slow death of the firm
by Nick Tomainohttps://thecontrol.co/the-slow-death-of-the-firm-1bd6cc81286b Vitalik Buterin, creator of Ethereum — Unchained: big ideas from the worlds of blockchain and cryptocurrency
by Laura Shinhttps://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/unchained-big-ideas-from-worlds-blockchain-cryptocurrency/id1123922160 Mental models for understanding tokensNick Tomaino and Chris Dixonhttps://a16z.com/2018/01/21/mental-models-tokens-crypto-trends/ The myth of the irrational token holder — why blockchain governance doesn’t fit squarely into any existing model
by Kathleen Breitmanhttps://medium.com/@kathleenbreit/the-myth-of-the-irrational-token-holder-c12438709afd  Blockchain governance — design components, approaches, suggestions
by Fred Ehrsamhttps://medium.com/@FEhrsam/blockchain-governance-programming-our-future-c3bfe30f2d74 Against on-chain governance — refuting (and rebuking) the above post
by Vlad Zamfirhttps://medium.com/@Vlad_Zamfir/against-on-chain-governance-a4ceacd040ca Notes on blockchain governance
by Vitalik Buterinhttp://vitalik.ca/general/2017/12/17/voting.html A self-amending crypto-ledger — Tezos position paperby Arthur and Kathleen Breitmanhttps://www.tezos.com/static/papers/position_paper.pdf The hitchhiker’s guide to smart contracts in Ethereumby Manuel Araozhttps://blog.zeppelin.solutions/the-hitchhikers-guide-to-smart-contracts-in-ethereum-848f08001f05  Securing smart contracts (series) — 6 Solidity vulnerabilities and how to avoid them
from Loomhttps://medium.com/loom-network/how-to-secure-your-smart-contracts-6-solidity-vulnerabilities-and-how-to-avoid-them-part-1-c33048d4d17dhttps://medium.com/loom-network/how-to-secure-your-smart-contracts-6-solidity-vulnerabilities-and-how-to-avoid-them-part-2-730db0aa4834 Ethereum smart contract best practicesby ConsenSys Diligencehttps://consensys.github.io/smart-contract-best-practices/ Devcon3 panel on formal verificationPhil Daian, Everett Hildenbrandt, Yoichi Hirai, and Loi Luu, moderated by Reto Trinklerhttps://youtu.be/DrDIcirrhWM Privacy on the blockchainby Vitalik Buterinhttps://blog.ethereum.org/2016/01/15/privacy-on-the-blockchain/ Epicenter — a trove of interviews with many different blockchain project leadshttps://epicenter.tv/episodes/ Blockchains don’t scale — not today, at least… but there’s hope
by Preethi Kasireddyhttps://hackernoon.com/blockchains-dont-scale-not-today-at-least-but-there-s-hope-2cb43946551a Platform currencies may soon be obsolete — here is my claim: within 5 years the biggest cryptocurrency by market cap will be an application token
by Aleksandr Bulkinhttps://blog.coinfund.io/platform-currencies-may-soon-be-obsolete-78d9b263d902 The importance of layer two — an HTTP of bitcoin and blockchains
by Elizabeth Starkhttps://youtu.be/3PcR4HWJnkY Scaling Tezos — scaling with recursive SNARKs (succinct non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge)
by Arthur Breitmanhttps://hackernoon.com/scaling-tezo-8de241dd91bd Ethereum Foundation research initiatives — primary topics in both pure and applied researchby Ethereum Foundationhttp://notes.eth.sg/CwIwZgbAjADAxgUwLQEMUIKxOCsWCcIEwShAHCgEwJj4qyVA Ethereum scalability research and development subsidy programsby Vitalik Buterinhttps://blog.ethereum.org/2018/01/02/ethereum-scalability-research-development-subsidy-programs/ A beginner’s guide to Ethermintby Tenderminthttps://blog.cosmos.network/a-beginners-guide-to-ethermint-38ee15f8a6f4 Construction of a plasma chain 0x1by David Knotthttps://blog.omisego.network/construction-of-a-plasma-chain-0x1-614f6ebd1612 Accounts, transactions, gas, and block gas limits in Ethereumby Hudson Jamesonhttps://hudsonjameson.com/2017-06-27-accounts-transactions-gas-ethereum/ Interplanetary linked computing: separating Merkle Computing from blockchain computational courtsby Simon de la Rouvierehttps://media.consensys.net/interplanetary-linked-computing-separating-merkle-computing-from-blockchain-computational-courts-1ade201ecf8a Ethereum sharding: overview and finalityby Hsiao-Wei Wanghttps://medium.com/@icebearhww/ethereum-sharding-and-finality-65248951f649 Consensus Compare: Casper vs. Tendermint; Tendermint BFT vs. EOS dPoSfrom Tenderminthttps://blog.cosmos.network/consensus-compare-casper-vs-tendermint-6df154ad56aehttps://blog.cosmos.network/consensus-compare-tendermint-bft-vs-eos-dpos-46c5bca7204b Ethereum Casper 101by Jon Choihttps://medium.com/@jonchoi/ethereum-casper-101-7a851a4f1eb0The history of Casper  (series)by Vlad Zamfirhttps://medium.com/@Vlad_Zamfir/the-history-of-casper-part-1-59233819c9a9 Decentralization in Bitcoin and Ethereumby Adem Efe Gencer, Soumya Basu, Ittay Eyal, Robbert van Renesse, and Emin Gün Sirerhttp://hackingdistributed.com/2018/01/15/decentralization-bitcoin-ethereum/ Seeking consensus on consensus — DPOS (delegated proof of stake) and the Two Generals’ problem
by Ian Grigghttps://steemit.com/eos/@iang/seeking-consensus-on-consensus-dpos-or-delegated-proof-of-stake-and-the-two-generals-problem A proof of stake design philosophyby Vitalik Buterinhttps://medium.com/@VitalikButerin/a-proof-of-stake-design-philosophy-506585978d51 Inflation and participation in stake based token protocolsby Doug Petkanicshttps://medium.com/@petkanics/inflation-and-participation-in-stake-based-token-protocols-1593688612bf A crash course in mechanism designfrom BlockChannelhttps://medium.com/blockchannel/a-crash-course-in-mechanism-design-for-cryptoeconomic-applications-a9f06ab6a976 Cryptoasset valuations — a theory and framework for evaluating
by Chris Burniskehttps://medium.com/@cburniske/cryptoasset-valuations-ac83479ffca7 A process for evaluating new tokensby Nick Tomainohttps://thecontrol.co/our-process-for-evaluating-new-tokens-4627ed97f500 On medium-of-exchange token valuations
by Vitalik Buterinhttp://vitalik.ca/general/2017/10/17/moe.html Understanding token velocityby Kyle Samanihttps://multicoin.capital/2017/12/08/understanding-token-velocity/ Fat protocols are not an investment thesisby Jake Brukhmanhttps://blog.coinfund.io/fat-protocols-are-not-an-investment-thesis-17c8837c2734 Skin-in-the-game coinsby Ryan Selkishttps://medium.com/tbis-weekly-bits/skin-in-the-game-coins-da0afdfdc650 Thoughts on tokens
by Balaji Srinivasanhttps://news.earn.com/thoughts-on-tokens-436109aabcbe Funding the evolution of blockchainsby Fred Ehrsamhttps://medium.com/@FEhrsam/funding-the-evolution-of-blockchains-87d160988481 The Bitcoin model for crowdfundingby Naval Ravikanthttps://startupboy.com/2014/03/09/the-bitcoin-model-for-crowdfunding/ How to make bonding curves for the economic web — a novel token distribution mechanism for building healthy communities, a technical primer
by Slava Balasanovhttps://hackernoon.com/how-to-make-bonding-curves-for-continuous-token-models-3784653f8b17 Separating the staking token from the fee token — introducing the Photon (the Hard Spoon explained)
by Tenderminthttps://blog.cosmos.network/cosmos-fee-token-introducing-the-photon-8a62b2f51aa Explanation of DAICOs
by Vitalik Buterinhttps://ethresear.ch/t/explanation-of-daicos/465 The SAFT Projecthttps://saftproject.com/ Regulatory environment and considerations — updates and explainers
from Coin Centerhttps://coincenter.org/our-work State of decentralized exchanges, 2018by Nathan Sexerhttps://media.consensys.net/state-of-decentralized-exchanges-2018-276dad340c79 Networked liquidity — projects solving the chicken and egg problemby Radar Relayhttps://medium.com/radarrelay/networked-liquidity-2030d85af897 List of decentralized exchanges — of cryptocurrencies and tokens (does not yet include column for degree of decentralization)https://github.com/PYMERVAL/decentradexchange Stablecoins: A holy grail in digital currencyby Nick Tomainohttps://thecontrol.co/stablecoins-a-holy-grail-in-digital-currency-b64f3371e111 An overview of stablecoinsby Myles Sniderhttps://multicoin.capital/2018/01/17/an-overview-of-stablecoins/ The search for a stable cryptocurrencyby Vitalik Buterinhttps://blog.ethereum.org/2014/11/11/search-stable-cryptocurrency/ Maker for dummies: a plain English explanation of the Dai stablecoinby Gregory DiPriscohttps://medium.com/cryptolinks/maker-for-dummies-a-plain-english-explanation-of-the-dai-stablecoin-e4481d79b90 Introducing curation markets — trade popularity of memes and information (with code!)
by Simon de la Rouvierehttps://medium.com/@simondlr/introducing-curation-markets-trade-popularity-of-memes-information-with-code-70bf6fed9881 Curation markets (tweetstorm) — summary and implications of
by Fred Ehrsamhttps://twitter.com/FEhrsam/status/958388803655184386 Early UIs for curation markets (tweetstorm) — categories and some projects using markets to curate human readable information
by Jesse Waldenhttps://twitter.com/jessewldn/status/958733889643696128 Token-curated registries — a more formal but less-than-mathematical view of token-curated registries
by Mike Goldinhttps://medium.com/@ilovebagels/token-curated-registries-1-0-61a232f8dac7 Building ‘Google for the economic web’ on the Ethereum blockchainby Maciej Olpinskihttps://blog.userfeeds.io/building-google-for-the-economic-web-on-the-ethereum-blockchain-de27cb3d23b Smart media tokensfrom Steemithttps://smt.steem.io/smt-whitepaper.pdf Digital pets that don’t dieby Elaine Ouhttps://elaineou.com/2017/12/03/digital-pets-that-dont-die/ Digital collectibles and the weird future of “digibles”by Josh Starkhttps://hackernoon.com/digital-collectibles-and-the-weird-future-of-digibles-f75f4bf0f9aa Cryptocollectibles are XLNT, but nobody knows what’s next
by Matt Condonhttps://medium.com/xlnt-art/cryptocollectibles-are-xlnt-but-nobody-knows-whats-next-a7892b311637 Rare pepe — what happens when you combine a crypto-asset with a meme and a trading card
by Fred Wilsonhttp://avc.com/2017/05/rare-pepe/ How to code your own cryptokitties-style game on Ethereumby James Martin Duffyhttps://medium.com/loom-network/how-to-code-your-own-cryptokitties-style-game-on-ethereum-7c8ac86a4eb3 Week in Ethereum News — tracking developments in the Ethereum ecosystem
by Evan Van Nesshttp://www.weekinethereum.com/ The Control — on the entrepreneurs, projects and protocols that are putting control of power in the hands of the people
by 1confirmationhttps://www.getrevue.co/profile/control Token Economy — tracking new developments in distributed ledger tech
by Stefano Bernardi and Yannick Rouxhttps://tokeneconomy.co/ Proof of Work — projects and progress in crypto, also a view from China
by Eric Meltzerhttps://tinyletter.com/proofofwork/archive Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies (2015)by Arvind Narayan, Joseph Bonneau, Edward Felten, Andrew Millerhttps://piazza.com/princeton/spring2015/btctech/home Advanced topics in computer science: Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies (2014)by Arvind Narayanhttp://randomwalker.info/teaching/fall-2014-bitcoin/ A graduate course in applied cryptography (2017)by Dan Boneh and Victor Shouphttp://toc.cryptobook.us/ Read more from a16z.com…

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