Here’s a list — building on and including Chris’ last roundup — of crypto readings and resources. It’s organized from building blocks and basics; foundations (& history); and key concepts and beginners’ guides — followed by specific topics such as governance; development, privacy, and security; scaling; consensus; cryptoeconomics and investing; fundraising and token distribution; decentralized exchanges; stablecoins; and cryptoeconomic primitives (crytocollectibles, curation markets, games & culture).

We also included a section with other resources, such as newsletters and courses, at the end. We’ll soon be updating this regularly at, for now we’ll keep it updated here.

You can also find most of a16z’s writings, posts, and videos on the topic at How the bitcoin protocol actually worksby Michael Nielsen Ethereum in 25 minutesby Vitalik Buterin Decrypting crypto, from bitcoin and blockchain to ICOsby Alex Rampell Cryptographic hash function — what they are, properties of, Khan Academy a basic primer on blockchain — ledger basics, why it matters
Chris Berg, Sinclair Davidson, and Jason Potts a basic glossary of terms — a few short and simple definitions Bitcoin whitepaper (2009): A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash Systemby Satoshi Nakamoto Ethereum whitepaper (2013+): A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platformby Vitalik Buterin et al The idea of smart contracts (1997)by Nick Szabo Why bitcoin matters (2014)by Marc Andreessen Beyond the bitcoin bubbleby Steven Johnson Crypto tokens: A breakthrough in open network designby Chris Dixon  Crypto tokens and the coming age of protocol innovationby Albert Wenger  Fat protocolsby Joel Monegro  Cryptocurrencies, app coins, and investing in protocolsOlaf Carson-Wee, Chris Dixon, and Sonal Chokshi Getting applications into people’s handsJuan Benet and Chris Dixon How the U.S. government used blockchain to fight fraudby Kathryn Haun  Bitcoin network effectsby Elad Gil The quiet master of cryptocurrency — Nick Szabo in conversation with Naval Ravikant
by Tim Ferris Beginner’s guide series on cryptoassets (series) — from ethereum to litecoin
by Linda Xie  Why crypto tokens matterFred Ehrsam and Chris Dixon Why it’s hard to “get” bitcoin: the blockchain spectrumby Dhruv Bansal The slow death of the firm
by Nick Tomaino Vitalik Buterin, creator of Ethereum — Unchained: big ideas from the worlds of blockchain and cryptocurrency
by Laura Shin Mental models for understanding tokensNick Tomaino and Chris Dixon The myth of the irrational token holder — why blockchain governance doesn’t fit squarely into any existing model
by Kathleen Breitman  Blockchain governance — design components, approaches, suggestions
by Fred Ehrsam Against on-chain governance — refuting (and rebuking) the above post
by Vlad Zamfir Notes on blockchain governance
by Vitalik Buterin A self-amending crypto-ledger — Tezos position paperby Arthur and Kathleen Breitman The hitchhiker’s guide to smart contracts in Ethereumby Manuel Araoz  Securing smart contracts (series) — 6 Solidity vulnerabilities and how to avoid them
from Loom Ethereum smart contract best practicesby ConsenSys Diligence Devcon3 panel on formal verificationPhil Daian, Everett Hildenbrandt, Yoichi Hirai, and Loi Luu, moderated by Reto Trinkler Privacy on the blockchainby Vitalik Buterin Epicenter — a trove of interviews with many different blockchain project leads Blockchains don’t scale — not today, at least… but there’s hope
by Preethi Kasireddy Platform currencies may soon be obsolete — here is my claim: within 5 years the biggest cryptocurrency by market cap will be an application token
by Aleksandr Bulkin The importance of layer two — an HTTP of bitcoin and blockchains
by Elizabeth Stark Scaling Tezos — scaling with recursive SNARKs (succinct non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge)
by Arthur Breitman Ethereum Foundation research initiatives — primary topics in both pure and applied researchby Ethereum Foundation Ethereum scalability research and development subsidy programsby Vitalik Buterin A beginner’s guide to Ethermintby Tendermint Construction of a plasma chain 0x1by David Knott Accounts, transactions, gas, and block gas limits in Ethereumby Hudson Jameson Interplanetary linked computing: separating Merkle Computing from blockchain computational courtsby Simon de la Rouviere Ethereum sharding: overview and finalityby Hsiao-Wei Wang Consensus Compare: Casper vs. Tendermint; Tendermint BFT vs. EOS dPoSfrom Tendermint Ethereum Casper 101by Jon Choi history of Casper  (series)by Vlad Zamfir Decentralization in Bitcoin and Ethereumby Adem Efe Gencer, Soumya Basu, Ittay Eyal, Robbert van Renesse, and Emin Gün Sirer Seeking consensus on consensus — DPOS (delegated proof of stake) and the Two Generals’ problem
by Ian Grigg A proof of stake design philosophyby Vitalik Buterin Inflation and participation in stake based token protocolsby Doug Petkanics A crash course in mechanism designfrom BlockChannel Cryptoasset valuations — a theory and framework for evaluating
by Chris Burniske A process for evaluating new tokensby Nick Tomaino On medium-of-exchange token valuations
by Vitalik Buterin Understanding token velocityby Kyle Samani Fat protocols are not an investment thesisby Jake Brukhman Skin-in-the-game coinsby Ryan Selkis Thoughts on tokens
by Balaji Srinivasan Funding the evolution of blockchainsby Fred Ehrsam The Bitcoin model for crowdfundingby Naval Ravikant How to make bonding curves for the economic web — a novel token distribution mechanism for building healthy communities, a technical primer
by Slava Balasanov Separating the staking token from the fee token — introducing the Photon (the Hard Spoon explained)
by Tendermint Explanation of DAICOs
by Vitalik Buterin The SAFT Project Regulatory environment and considerations — updates and explainers
from Coin Center State of decentralized exchanges, 2018by Nathan Sexer Networked liquidity — projects solving the chicken and egg problemby Radar Relay List of decentralized exchanges — of cryptocurrencies and tokens (does not yet include column for degree of decentralization) Stablecoins: A holy grail in digital currencyby Nick Tomaino An overview of stablecoinsby Myles Snider The search for a stable cryptocurrencyby Vitalik Buterin Maker for dummies: a plain English explanation of the Dai stablecoinby Gregory DiPrisco Introducing curation markets — trade popularity of memes and information (with code!)
by Simon de la Rouviere Curation markets (tweetstorm) — summary and implications of
by Fred Ehrsam Early UIs for curation markets (tweetstorm) — categories and some projects using markets to curate human readable information
by Jesse Walden Token-curated registries — a more formal but less-than-mathematical view of token-curated registries
by Mike Goldin Building ‘Google for the economic web’ on the Ethereum blockchainby Maciej Olpinski Smart media tokensfrom Steemit Digital pets that don’t dieby Elaine Ou Digital collectibles and the weird future of “digibles”by Josh Stark Cryptocollectibles are XLNT, but nobody knows what’s next
by Matt Condon Rare pepe — what happens when you combine a crypto-asset with a meme and a trading card
by Fred Wilson How to code your own cryptokitties-style game on Ethereumby James Martin Duffy Week in Ethereum News — tracking developments in the Ethereum ecosystem
by Evan Van Ness The Control — on the entrepreneurs, projects and protocols that are putting control of power in the hands of the people
by 1confirmation Token Economy — tracking new developments in distributed ledger tech
by Stefano Bernardi and Yannick Roux Proof of Work — projects and progress in crypto, also a view from China
by Eric Meltzer Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies (2015)by Arvind Narayan, Joseph Bonneau, Edward Felten, Andrew Miller Advanced topics in computer science: Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies (2014)by Arvind Narayan A graduate course in applied cryptography (2017)by Dan Boneh and Victor Shoup Read more from…

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